# SHT Language

Notice!

Hey, this is a toy programming language full of bugs and lacking a lot of features. Use it as reference and don’t expect performance.

Check the repository here!

SHT is a scripting dynamic programming language, created to learn more about theory and practice of modern languages. Since the main goal is the knowledge, every step, from tokenizer to evaluation, is written manually.

The language is inspired by the cleanness of GO and Python, and by the directness of functional languages, such as Haskell and F#.

# What looks like?

value := math.fibonacci()
| takeWhile x: x < 4000000
| filter x: x is math.even
| sum
| to Number

You can try the SHT REPL tool: # The CLI

# Opens the REPL tool
$sht # Run a file$ sht run file.sht

# Run a code string
\$ sht exec "print('Hello')"

# The Language

## Variables and Types

SHT has dynamic typing without null values.

# Variables are defined using GO syntax
num1 := 1
num2 := 1.5
num3 := 1e100

str1 := 'Hello, World'
str2 := Hello,
World!

bool1 := true
bool2 := false

list := List { 1, 2, 3, 4, '🥸' }
dict := Dict { 'a': 1, 'b': 2 }
tuple := (1, 2, 3)

{
# Every curly braces adds a new scope
num1 = 3  # overrides the parent num1
num1 := 3 # defines a new variable for this scope only
}

# Operations

# Arithmetic
a + b
a - b
a * b
a / b
a // b  # integer division
a ** b  # pow(aum, b)
a % b   # mod

# Relational
a == b
a != b
a > b
a < b
a >= b
a <= b

# Logical
!a
a and b
a or b

# Other
a .. b # string concat, forces a and b to string convertion
a in b # meta-depending
a is b # meta-depending -- functions implement as Boolean(b(a))


# Functions

Functions are first classes.

# Returns are optional
a + b
}

# Function definitions can be used as expression
sub := fn(a, b) {
a - b
}

# Function closures
fn mult(x) {
return fn(a, b) {
(a + b)*x
}
}
mult(2)(1, 2) # = 6

# Arrow fuctions works like javascript arrows
say := (x) => { print('say:', x) }

# Parameter-less functions
fn { ... }

# and default to empty list
}
headTail(List { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 }) # = (1, 6)
headTail(List { 1 }) # = (1, false)

# Generator functions returns an iterator, and is only evaluated when
# the iterator is queried
fn oneTwoThree() {
yield 1
yield 2
yield 3
}
oneTwoThree() # = <Iterator>

# Error Handling

There is no try catch in the language, instead we use a wrap/unwrap system. When wrapping a value, the expression generates a Maybe type, similar to a Monad in other languages. In order to use the value or treat the error, you must unwrap the Maybe and use its value.

fn explode {
raise 'Error'
}

val := explode()?  # Wrap
type(val) # Maybe

if val! as err { # Unwrap
... # Treat error here
}

# Now the variable can assume its real value, in this case, an error
type(val) # Error

The expression val! returns an Error or false. In the example above, the if will only be evaluated if val is an error. After unwrapping, the variable will assume its real value.

# Control Flow

If’s and for’s are similar to Go:

if x > 2 {
...
}

if f() as val {
...
}

for x < 2 {
...
continue
}

for {
...
break
}

match (n%3, n%5) {
(0, 0): print('FizzBuzz')
(0, _): print('Fizz')
(_, 0): print('Buzz')
(_, _): print(n)
}

and an speciall loop to handle iterators:

pipe oneTwoThree() as n {
print(n)
}
# 1
# 2
# 3

Speaking of iterators, we have an special syntax to chain iterators, using pipe functions:

oneTwoThree()
| filter x: x%3 == 0 or x%5 == 0
| sum
| to Number

# Custom Data Types

SHT does not support OOP, because the language is not so SHTtier:

data User {
id = ''    # properties must have default values
name = ''
age = 0
email = ''

# Instance functions must have the this keyword as first arguments
fn isAllowed(this) {
return this.age >= 18
}

# If this is not present, the function is static
fn create() {
return User()
}

# Meta programming! Notice that meta functions are defined using on
on new(this) {
# similar to a constructor
}

on eq(this, other) {
# a == b
return this.id == other.id
}
}

user1 := User.create()
user2 := User { id='x', name='foo' } # id and name default values won't be evaluated.
user3 := User()
user4 := User() { id='y' }

All meta functions:

on set(this, property, value)
on get(this, property)
on setItem(this, index, value)
on getItem(this, index)
on new(this)
on call(this, ...)
on number(this)
on boolean(this)
on string(this)
on repr(this)
on to(iterator) # Notice that to is static
on iter(this)
on len(this)
on sub(this, other)
on mul(this, other)
on div(this, other)
on intDiv(this, other)
on mod(this, other)
on pow(this, other)
on eq(this, other)
on neq(this, other)
on gt(this, other)
on lt(this, other)
on gte(this, other)
on lte(this, other)
on pos(this)
on neg(this)
on not(this)
on in(this, other)
on is(this, other)